A 12 pJ/Pixel analog-to-information converter based 816 × 640 pixel CMOS image sensor

Denis Guangyin Chen, Fang Tang, Man Kay Law, Amine Bermak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Analog-to-information converters (AICs) take advantage of the limited information bandwidth in high-frequency signals to improve the energy efficiency of front-end data converters. High-resolution image sensors often convey limited information due to the spatial redundancy between neighboring pixels. This paper proposes a mixed-signal AIC which compresses each nonoverlapping 4 × 4 pixel block in a 816 × 640 pixel prototype active-pixel sensor (APS) imager. It combines an energy-efficient charge-pump bit-image processor (BIP) with an area-efficient successive-approximation-register-single-slope (SAR-SS) hybrid analog-to-digital converter (ADC) via a charge-transfer- amplifier (CTA). The AIC is fully dynamic and consumes no static power. The ADC's capacitor array doubles as a computational device for parts of the compression algorithm which reduces its sampling rate by a factor of four. The compressed data contains direct edge information and can be decoded by a very simple receiver. The fabricated prototype consumes 12 pJ per pixel at 111 fps in the image compression mode and 48 pJ per pixel at 28.7 fps in raw data mode (9 b per pixel) under the same clock rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most energy-efficient compressive CMOS image sensor ever reported in the literature, thanks to the proposed AIC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6762815
Pages (from-to)1210-1222
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume49
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Image sensors
Pixels
Digital to analog conversion
Image compression
Redundancy
Energy efficiency
Charge transfer
Clocks
Capacitors
Pumps
Sampling
Bandwidth
Sensors

Keywords

  • Analog-to-information converter (AIC)
  • charge transfer amplifier
  • CMOS image sensor
  • compressive sensing
  • image compression
  • SAR ADC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

A 12 pJ/Pixel analog-to-information converter based 816 × 640 pixel CMOS image sensor. / Chen, Denis Guangyin; Tang, Fang; Law, Man Kay; Bermak, Amine.

In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 49, No. 5, 6762815, 2014, p. 1210-1222.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Denis Guangyin ; Tang, Fang ; Law, Man Kay ; Bermak, Amine. / A 12 pJ/Pixel analog-to-information converter based 816 × 640 pixel CMOS image sensor. In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2014 ; Vol. 49, No. 5. pp. 1210-1222.
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