11.3% efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells: Via drop-on-demand inkjet printing

Xianzhong Lin, Reiner Klenk, Lan Wang, Tristan Köhler, Jürgen Albert, Sebastian Fiechter, Ahmed Ennaoui, Martha Ch Lux-Steiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)


Although Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSe) based thin film solar cells have reached efficiencies exceeding 22% based on vacuum processed CIGSSe absorbers, the supply of indium and gallium might become an issue if CIGSSe thin-film solar cells are produced in very large volumes. It is therefore mandatory to reduce the wastage of indium and gallium during the fabrication process. In this work, we report on a highly efficient precursor utilization, and a vacuum-free, and scalable route to the deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films via drop-on-demand inkjet-printing. The precursor ink, which shows long-term stability in air at room temperature, is formulated by dissolving metal nitrate salts in alcohol-based solvents. Crack free CIGSSe absorbers consisting of a layer with large grains at the surface and a layer with small grains at the back have been prepared by annealing the inkjet-printed Cu-In-Ga nitrate precursors in a Se/H2S containing atmosphere. Ga accumulation has been observed within the layer with small grains. A solar cell with a total area efficiency of 11.3% under standard AM 1.5 illumination has been achieved based on the printed CIGSSe absorbers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2037-2043
Number of pages7
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

Cite this

Lin, X., Klenk, R., Wang, L., Köhler, T., Albert, J., Fiechter, S., Ennaoui, A., & Lux-Steiner, M. C. (2016). 11.3% efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells: Via drop-on-demand inkjet printing. Energy and Environmental Science, 9(6), 2037-2043. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ee00587j